Before we dive straight into the inner workings of a VPN, it is a good idea to familiarize yourself with the basics of what a VPN is and what it does.
The acronym VPN stands for Virtual Private Network. As the name implies, it provides users with a virtual network that is private so that they can connect to the internet in a way that is safe and secure. Essentially, the ultimate goal of a VPN is to keep your private information private.
We highly recommend you read this article for a more in-depth explanation of a what a VPN is before you read this one, but here’s a short primer in any case.
But how exactly does a VPN do that?
A VPN works by routing your device’s internet connection through your chosen VPN’s private server rather than your internet service provider (ISP) so that when your data is transmitted to the internet, it comes from the VPN rather than your computer. The VPN acts as an intermediary of sorts as you connect to the internet, thereby hiding your IP address – the string of numbers your ISP assigns your device – and protecting your identity. Furthermore, if your data is somehow intercepted, it will be unreadable until it reaches its final destination.
A VPN creates a private “tunnel” from your device to the internet and hides your vital data through something that is known as encryption.
Encryption is the term used to describe how your data is kept private when using a VPN.
Encryption hides information in such a way (basically transforming it to gibberish) that it cannot be read without a very strong password, which is known as a key. This key essentially breaks the complicated code that your data has been turned into. Only your computer and the VPN server know this key. The process of decoding your data is known as decryption, which is the process of making encrypted information readable again through the application of the key.
As an everyday example, when you enter your credit card details into a shopping website, that information is encrypted and rendered unreadable until it reaches its end destination.
Different VPN services use different kinds of encryption processes, but put simply, the VPN encryption process goes something like this:
How effectively your data is encrypted is dependent on the protocols of your VPN provider’s encryption mechanism, which we will talk more about later.
How much or how little your VPN affects your device will be dependent on the kind of software you opt for.
Many VPNs will work directly with the settings of an operating system – such as Windows, Mac OS, iOS, or Android – so that every app that connects to the internet – such as browsers, banking, or social media apps – are protected.
This is the VPN most commonly used by homes and small businesses, and it’s the type offered by Namecheap. It uses an application that creates an encrypted connection to the private network that you can then utilize to connect to the internet at large.
Some VPNs work as a browser add-on. There are a plethora of add-ons you can install to browsers like Google Chrome or Firefox, while Opera comes with a built-in VPN. The downside of this is that your data will only be protected when you’re specifically using that browser. Other apps will not be protected. Furthermore, browser VPNs tend to be a little more vulnerable and IP leaks can occur.
If you do decide to opt for a browser add-on or extension, it’s best to stick to reputable companies that offer other VPN services, too. There are a lot of shady browser add-ons out there, avoid a scammy, data harvester by reading reviews and always reading the fine print of its terms of service.
Another way to implement a VPN is through a VPN-enabled router. This is ideal if you have several devices you want to protect as it will protect every device connected to the router, saving you having to install the VPN individually. Furthermore, you’ll only need to sign in once; your router will always be connected to your VPN.
Connecting your router to a VPN isn’t as difficult as you may think. First of all, you’ll need to sign up for a VPN service then you’ll need a router. The most convenient kind of router to get is one that is designed to support VPNs right away, without you having to do anything more technical that entering your VPN details. These routers can be slightly more expensive than regular routers, but the convenience is worth it.
Organizations often use a remote-access VPN for employees who work remotely. Through this VPN employees can securely access the company’s private intranet, often by using a password and an app. This is a custom-created solution that requires personalized development and heavy IT resources.
So we’ve discussed how a VPN works and some different ways to implement a VPN, but why exactly should you use a VPN?
Most people will probably agree that the basic tenets of a VPN are a good thing. Here at Namecheap, we think that internet privacy is more than just a good thing – it’s vital to the success of the online world. That said, many people delay getting a VPN, considering it inessential or, worse, unnecessary. They shouldn’t.
A good way of illustrating the necessity of a VPN is to show just how exposed you are when your internet connection is not encrypted.
From shopping and paying bills to banking, so many everyday acts are rapidly moving online. As a result, we’re transmitting very important information, such as credit card details and social security numbers, day in, day out.
By not using a VPN, you’re not quite shouting your most sensitive information from the rooftops, but it is a little like leaving your front door open with your personal information conveniently laid out on a table right inside the door. Maybe you have good, honest neighbors that won’t come in and take what is valuable. It’s natural to want to believe in the goodness of our neighbors. That said, there’s a likelihood that one or two of those neighbors will have a more malicious intent. And even if there isn’t, do you really want to take that risk by not closing your door and locking it tight?
Think of the internet as a neighborhood, except instead of houses, there is a collection of servers. These servers store the internet’s countless websites and communicate with each other constantly and have access to your data as you browse the internet. You may not care about some of this data, but you should certainly be worried about more sensitive data like your online banking details.
You might think that HTTPS does the job, but it’s ok.
For the uninitiated, HTTPS secures information communicated between a person’s web browser and a website. It is indicated in green the browser address bar and also by a padlock icon. While this does indeed provide added security while web browsing, your data will still be vulnerable, particularly if you’re using public Wi-Fi. Going back to our house analogy, it’s a bit like closing your front door but failing to lock it. It’s better than keeping your front door open, sure, but security definitely could be tighter.
Whether you’re connected to the internet in public or at home, without a VPN you are exposed to a myriad of vulnerabilities. When you’re browsing at home, your ISP can see everything you do and is probably logging it. Places with public WiFi hotspots, such as coffee spots and airports, are very vulnerable to hackers who can easily set up fake but convincing hotspots.
On the other hand, when you use a VPN, your data is not exposed. The origin of your data will be your VPN server. By using a VPN your online actions will not be tracked and logged by ISPs and unsavory hackers, nor will sensitive information be taken. Even if data is intercepted, it is encrypted, so it looks like nonsense to anyone without a decryption key.
People use VPNs for countless reasons. Some of these reasons are specific, while some people just have a VPN as another layer of security in addition to a good antivirus program and practicing generally sensible internet usage.
Ultimately, why people use a VPN is to have greater anonymity online. In a day and age where revelations of public data being used in shady ways have become a daily occurrence, keeping private information private is more vital than ever.
Like with any online software or service, the security of a VPN will be reliant on a number of factors. In the case of VPNs, these factors include:
Let’s start by taking a look at the different kinds of VPN protocols available right now.
A VPN protocol is basically the technology your VPN service uses to ensure you get the fastest and safest possible connection to the internet. Combining encryption standards and transmission protocols, a VPN protocol determines how your data is transmitted between your device and the VPN server.
The main VPN protocols in use today are:
Created by Microsoft, this is one of the oldest protocols used on the internet today. As such, it’s only really useful if you are using it on an older Windows operating system, though it is fast and easy to deploy. However, if a VPN service offers just this, it isn’t recommended.
This protocol is a combination of the previously mentioned PPTP and the L2F protocol by networking hardware company, Cisco Systems. It creates a more secure data tunnel than PPTP, but doesn’t actually have encryption or privacy capabilities. As such, it is often bundled with IPSec, which is a security protocol.
Another VPN created by Microsoft, this is the VPN equivalent of the protocols used by websites for encryption purposes. A very secure protocol, only the two parties involved in the transmission of data can decode it.
A newer, more secure version of L2TP, IKEv2 was also born from a collaboration between Microsoft and Cisco. Like it’s predecessor, it is often bundled with IPSec. This protocol is particularly effective on mobile devices.
OpenVPN is an open source VPN technology and is widely seen as the best around. Don’t let the term “open source” put you off, all that means is that countless developers are constantly improving the technology, and anyone can use it and modify it to their needs, whether that be individuals or companies. Its effectiveness has been put to the test numerous time through high-profile audits. OpenVPN is one of the most popular protocols and is considered the most secure, offering the same protection as the previously mentioned protocols, but on a greater scale.
Before deciding on what VPN provider to go for, it’s a good idea to see what protocols they offer and if they suit what you will be using your VPN for.
The security of your VPN may very well depend on the laws of country you’re residing in, or the laws of the country where your VPN’s server and company headquarters are located. This is because the laws of a particular country will affect how you are allowed to use VPN technology and how different companies are permitted to use VPN technology.
Because the laws surrounding VPN usage are still somewhat new and still evolving, they can be interpreted in innumerable ways. If you are located in North America and western Europe, VPN use is generally permitted. VPN usage is a somewhat gray area in many countries, such as China, Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Russia. While VPN use is not outright illegal in some of these countries, VPN use is restricted.
For instance, in China, it is illegal for businesses to use a VPN without a license and it is illegal for businesses to offer VPNs without a license. In Russia and Iran, only government-approved VPNs are allowed to be used. In United Arab Emirates if you are found to have fraudulent IP address you could be fined or jailed. VPN use is banned completely in Belarus, North Korea, Iraq, and Turkmenistan.
If you reside in a country where the law around VPN use is unclear, even if you’re not necessarily accessing content that is frowned upon or illegal, the act of using a VPN in itself could get you into a lot of trouble.
Depending on the country a VPN provider is located in, the company may be legally required to keep logs of your internet usage. They may also keep a record of your payments. This means that even though you have been using a VPN, your data is still being stored and could even be used for reasons you did not approve of later on.
Avoid this by always reading the fine print in your VPN’s Terms of Service. A VPN may wax lyrical about providing you with the ultimate secure internet browsing experience, but it’s better to be certain than to go just by their word.
As well as that, a good rule of thumb is to opt for a paid VPN rather than a free option. While many free VPNs can change your geolocation, few offer proper data encryption and data logging is common, with companies often selling your data to third parties.
Hopefully, you now have a better idea of how a VPN works. Before we send you on your merry way, here’s a checklist of things to look out for before you choose a VPN:
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Using a VPN allows you to surf and work online with a safe and minimally restricted internet experience.